The cap of Amanita orientifulva is
convex to plano-convex, and obtusely umbonate,
non-appendiculate, with a tuberculate-striate margin. The
cap is fulvous to brown or dark brown over disc, becoming
ochraceous, yellowish brown to fulvous toward the margin.
The flesh is white to dirty white to cream-colored and
The gills are free, crowded, and white to cream-colored with brown to brownish edges. The
short gills are truncate and plentiful.
The stem is 80 - 150 (-200) × 5 - 30 mm, dirty white to brownish, covered with brown to
fulvous or greyish brown squamules. The saccate volva is
membranous, white, often with rusty spots; and its upper
margin is often brownish. It has a pale brown inner surface.
The spores measure 10.0 - 14.0 × 9.5 - 13.0 µm and are globose to subglobose and
inamyloid. Clamps are not present at the bases of basidia.
The species occurs on soil under
Fir, Oak, and/or Willow, and sometimes under Asian Chinkapin (Castanopsis). It fruits
from June to September in southwestern China at 1300-4200 m elev.—Zhu L. Yang
Zhu L. Yang, M. Weiss & Oberw. 2004. Mycologia 96: 643.
"Asian Orange-Brown Ringless Amanita"
orientis - "eastern" or "of the east" + fulva - in reference to Amanita fulva, a European taxon to which the present taxon bears some similarity.
26.vii.1998 Zhu L. Yang 2461 (holotype, HKAS 32522)
Zhang et al. (2004), Key Lab. Biodivers. Biogeogr., Kunming Inst. Bot., Yunnan, China
The following text may make multiple use of each data field.
The field may contain magenta text presenting data from a type study
and/or revision of other original material cited in the protolog of the present taxon.
Macroscopic descriptions in magenta are a combination of data from the protolog and
additional observations made on the exiccata during revision of the cited original
The same field may also contain black text, which is data from a revision of the present
taxon (including non-type material and/or material not cited in the protolog).
Paragraphs of black text will be labeled if further subdivision of
this text is appropriate.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text where data is missing or uncertain.
The following material is derived only from the protolog of the present taxon.
NOTE: Spore data from papers by Z. L. Yang are presented following his use of the "Times New Roman" face for "Q" and "Q'"—respectively, "Q" and "Q."
from protolog: Basidiomes medium-size to large.
from protolog: 50 - 140 mm wide, fulvous to brown or dark brown (Raw Umber, Antique Brown, Cinnamon-Brown, Orange-Cinnamon, 5C6, 5D6-7) over disk, becoming ochreous, yellowish brown to fulvous (Ochraceous-Tawny to Ochraceous-Orange, 5B5-6, 5C6, 4A4-5) toward margin, often with indistinctly darker-colored ring-like zone at proximal end of marginal striations, at first hemispherical, then convex to plano-convex, obtusely umbonate, glabrous; context white to dirty white to cream-colored, unchanging; margin tuberculate-striate (0.2-0.35R, rarely up to 0.5R), nonappendiculate; universal veil absent.
from protolog: free, crowded, white to cream-colored (Cream Color, 1A1-2), with brown to brownish edges; lamellulae truncate, plentiful, evenly distributed.
from protolog: 80 - 150 (-200) × 5 - 30 mm, dirty white to brownish (1A1, much paler than 5B4), covered with brown to fulvous or grayish brown (5B3-5) squamules, usually tapering upward, with apex slightly expanded; context white, hollow in center; exannulate; universal veil as saccate volva (20-) 40 - 60 (-90) × (10-) 15 - 50 mm, membranous, outer surface white (1A1), often with rusty (6C5-6) spots, with upper margin often brownish, with inner surface pale brown (paler than 5B4), 1 - 3 mm thick, with limbus internus placed rather high on inside of volval limb or at point of attachment between stipe and volval limb.
from protolog: Odor indistinct. Taste not recorded.
from protolog: 60 - 100 µm thick; upper layer (30 - 50 µm thick) strongly gelatinized, composed of subradially arranged, 1 - 3 µm wide filamentous hyphae, thin-walled, colorless to subcolorless; lower layer (30 - 50 µm thick) composed of radially and compactly arranged, 3 - 8 (-12) µm wide filamentous hyphae, often with brownish to brown, vacuolar pigments; vascular hyphae rare to scattered, 3 - 12 µm wide.
from protolog: bilateral. Mediostratum 40 - 50 µm wide, composed of fairly abundant subfusiform to ellipsoid or clavate, inflated cells (45 - 100 × 15 - 25 µm); filamentous hyphae abundant, 3 - 7 µm wide; vascular hyphae rare. Lateral stratum composed of abundant clavate to subfusiform, inflated cells (55 - 100 × 20 - 30 µm), diverging at an angle of 30 - 45° to mediostratum; filamentous hyphae abundant, 2 - 7 (-12) µm wide.
from protolog: 30 - 50 µm thick, with 2 - 3 (-4) layers of subglobose to ovoid or short ellipsoid cells 10 25 (-30) × 10 - 20 (-25) µm.
from protolog: On pileus: lacking. Interior of volval limb on stipe base composed of two intergrading layers. Outermost of these layers (excluding exterior surface): composed of longitudinally to irregularly arranged elements: filamentous hyphae dominant, (2-) 4 - 10 (-12) µm wide, colorless, hyaline or sometimes with brownish to brown contents, slightly thick-walled (ca. 0.5 µm thick), branching, anastomosing; inflated cells scattered to fairly abundant, subglobose to ovoid (40 - 70 × 30 - 55 µm) to long ellipsoid to subfusiform (80 -90 × 30 - 35 µm), colorless, hyaline or with brownish contents, slightly thick-walled (ca. 0.5 µm thick), terminal, usually single, sometimes in chains of 2; vascular hyphae scattered to locally conspicuous, 3-10 µm wide. Innermost of the two layers (excluding inner surface): comprising very abundant, subglobose to ovoid (35 - 100 × 30 - 85 µm), long ellipsoid to subfusiform (55 - 120 × 15 - 40 µm) cells, terminal or intercalary, single or in chains of 2 - 3, colorless, hyaline to subhyaline, thin- to slightly thick-walled (ca. 0.5 µm thick); vascular hyphae rare, 3 - 10 µm wide. Exterior surface: similar to interior of outer layer but often with more abundant, somewhat gelatinized filamentous hyphae. Inner surface: strongly gelatinized, composed of 1.5 - 3 µm wide filamentous hyphae.
from protolog: composed primarily of longitudinally arranged acrophysalides, 200 - 350 × 30 - 40 µm; filamentous hyphae 2 - 8 µm wide, scattered (in interior) to abundant (on stipe surface), colorless, hyaline (in interior) or with yellowish, vacuolar pigments (on stipe surface); vascular hyphae rare, 2 - 15 µm wide.
lamella edge tissue
from protolog: sterile; microscopically appearing as somewhat gelatinized, yellowish strip 100 - 200 µm wide in side view, composed of very abundant, ovoid to subglobose or sphaeropedunculate, thin-walled, colorless, inflated cells (25 - 70 × 20 - 40 µm), sometimes showing yellowish contents and appearing terminal, singly or in chains of 2 - 3; filamentous hyphae abundant, 2 - 5 (-8) µm wide, gelatinized, colorless, hyaline or yellowish, more or less running parallel to the lamella edge.
from protolog: China: Solitary or scattered on soil. At 1300 - 4200 m elev. Under Abies, Quercus and/or Salix, sometimes under Castanopsis.
from protolog: CHINA: GUIZHOU—Zunyi (prefecture level) City - Suiyang Co., Kuankuoshui, 17.vi.2000 X. L. Wu 819 (paratype, HKAS 35989).
SICHUAN—Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture - Daocheng Co., unkn. loc., 4.vii.1998 Zhu L. Yang 1984 (paratype, HKAS 32531); Jiulong Co. (Gyaisi Co.), Jichoushan, 11.ix.1996 M. S. Yuan 2682 (paratype, HKAS 31133); Kangding Co., Gonggashan, 14.vii.1984 J. J. Su & H. A. Wen 1129 (HMAS 50987, as Amanita fulva in (Ying et al 1995)); Luding Co., Moxi, 12.viii.1997 P. Q. Sun 2906 (paratype, paratype, HKAS 31360); Xiangcheng Co., Daxueshan, 4060 m elev., 24.vii.1998 Zhu L. Yang 2423 (paratype, HKAS 32530); Xiangcheng Co., Daxueshan, 4000 m elev., 27.vii.1998 Zhu L. Yang 2474 (paratype, paratype, HKAS 32470); Xiangcheng Co., Reda, 3450 m elev., 15.vii.1998 Zhu L. Yang 2333 (paratype, HKAS 32483); Xiangcheng Co., Reda, 3600 m elev., 16.vii.1998 Zhu L. Yang 2344 (paratype, HKAS 32457); Xiangcheng Co., Wumingshan, 12.vii.1998 Zhu L. Yang 2290 (paratype, HKAS 32478).
YUNNAN—Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture - Deqin Co., Meilishi, 29.viii.2000 Zhu L. Yang 3017 (paratype, HKAS 36604); Shangri La Co.(formerly Zhongdian Co.), Dongwang, 26.vii.1998 Zhu L. Yang 2461 (holotype, HKAS 32522), 26.vii.1998 Zhu L. Yang 2459 (paratype, HKAS 32464). Kunming (prefecture level) City - Yiliang Co., Mugan, 20.ix.2000 Zhu L. Yang 2519 (paratype, HKAS 32664). Lijiang (prefecture level) City - Yulong Nakhi Autonomous Co., Laojunshan, 13.viii.2000, Zhu L. Yang 2911 (paratype, HKAS 36586).
from protolog: "Amanita orientifulva, belonging in Amanita [subgenus Amanita] section Vaginatae (Fr.) Quél. sensu Yang (1997), is rather common and widely distributed in China. This species is very similar to A. fulva (Schaeff.) Fr., originally described from Europe. In fact, A. orientifulva usually was regarded as A. fulva in China (Ying et al 1994). However, there are a few features separating A. orientifulva from A. fulva. The main morphological or anatomical difference between A. orientifulva and A. fulva might be the volval structure. The interior of the volval limb of A. fulva [GERMANY: BAVARIA—Bayerisches Wald, 18.x.1987 N. Arnold box II (L)] can be distinguished into two layers: The outer layer is composed of loosely and irregularly arranged, fairly abundant to abundant filamentous hyphae and fairly abundant to abundant inflated cells; the inner layer is composed predominantly of irregularly arranged filamentous hyphae, mixed with scattered to locally fairly abundant inflated cells. Hyphae on the outer surface of the volva in A. fulva usually are broken during fruit body development. On the contrary, the outer layer of the volva of A. orientifulva is primarily composed of much more compactly and more or less longitudinally arranged, filamentous hyphae mixed with fewer inflated cells and scattered to locally conspicuous vascular hyphae, and the inner layer consists of more inflated cells. Hyphae on the outer surface of the volva in A. orientifulva do not break during fruit body development. Furthermore, A. orientifulva is distinguished from A. fulva by its generally larger basidiocarps often with a somewhat darker ring-like zone at the proximal end of the marginal striations of the pileus and somewhat larger basidiospores (Tulloss 2000). The basidiospores of A. fulva are (9.0-) 10.0 - 12.5 (-19.3) × (8.2-) 9.3 - 12.0 (-15.5) µm (Tulloss 2000).
"Amanita orientifulva is phenetically somewhat similar to A. sampajensis A. V. Sathe & S. M. Kulk., A. fuligineodisca Tulloss, Ovrebo & Halling and A. humboldtii Singer. Amanita sampajensis, known from India, has an isabelline to hazel pileus, dark olivaceous brown stipe, while volva and a pileipellis with wavy hyphae with olivaceous contents (Sathe et al 1980, Tulloss et al 1992). Amanita fuligineodisca and A. humboldtii, both originally described from Colombia, have smaller fruit bodies, usually with longer marginal striations on the darker pileus and thinner pileipellis. Furthermore, there is no pronounced division of structure within the interior of the volval limb of A. fuligineodisca and A. humboldtii.
"In the protolog of A. aporema Boedijn, a poorly known species described from Indonesia, it was supposed that A. aporema might be confused with A. fulva (Boedijn 1951: 320). We have studied the only specimen cited by Boedijn under A. aporema [INDONESIA: SUMATRA—Batang Paleopoeh, vii.1924 E. Jacobson s.n. (holotype; BO)]. The basidiospores are [35/1/1] (9.0-) 9.5 - 11.0 (-12.5) × (8.0-) 8.5 - 10.5 (-12.0) µm (Q = [1.0-] 1.02 - 1.11 [-1.15], Q = 1.08 ± 0.04) and inamyloid; and clamps are common in all parts of the fruit body. These data indicate that A. aporema is more closely related to A. princeps Corner & Bas [of section Caesareae—ed.] than to A. fulva and its allies. Based on the original description and examination of the poorly preserved holotype, it appears that A. aporema differs from A. orientifulva at least by its dirty white, smooth stipe, somewhat smaller basidiospores and the presence of clamps."
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.